Truth Be Told—Part 2: How Can We Know What Is True? – Facts, Arguments, and “Compulsory Figures”

come let us reason

compulsory figures            COMPULSORY FIGURES WERE ONCE A REQUIRED COMPONENT OF FIGURE SKATING COMPETITIONS —it’s how the sport got its name. Skaters carved intricate figures into the ice using the edges of the blades, demonstrating the skaters’ dexterity and control on the ice. As the more artistic dance elements and athletic jumps of the free skating program became more prominent, compulsory figures gradually diminished in importance and were eliminated from international competition in 1990. I am old enough to remember watching the compulsory figures program during Olympic competition. It was impressive, but admittedly tedious to watch for very long. Some supporters of compulsory figures said their elimination would cause an erosion of basic skills and lead to a decline in skaters’ technical ability in using the blade on the ice (see This seems plausible to me, but I admit I am not familiar enough with the technical aspects of the sport to know if that’s a fair assessment, then or now.

epistemologyBUT, OF COURSE, I’M NOT REALLY HERE TO TALK ABOUT THE DEATH OF COMPULSORY FIGURES; I just think it’s a very helpful analogy. I’m here to talk about epistemology—the study of how we know things. In this field an erosion of basic skills has indeed led to a decline in our ability to distinguish truth from lies or illusion. For example, one dismaying aspect of the postmodern condition of our culture is the use of personal feelings and group identity as primary tools for assessing what one will accept as “truth”. Truth really is best understood as encompassed by a story, but for people suffering from acute cases of postmodernity, one story is as good as any other story, as long as they like it and/or their group or community supports it. Another serious symptom of the postmodern condition is the belief that a lack of agreement between different “narrative communities”—groups of people who accept the same Big Story about reality—means we must always live with uncertainty about what is the truth, even about the core truths of our Big Story—our metanarrative. I have heard and read impassioned arguments that indicate how certain some advocates of uncertainty are about everything being uncertain. I do not merely want to be unkind, but I think a certain laziness and lack of serious thinking is behind this insistence on uncertainty, as well as one reason for a reliance on feelings or group identity. The Gospel writer Luke emphatically believed that “certainty of the things you have been taught” was attainable through “carefully investigat[ing] everything” (Gospel of Luke 1:3-4).

To make matters worse, in the same way that American popular culture has engendered a general disregard for truth and genuine knowledge, so too have American churches neglected understanding why and how we know that the Christian worldview—the Christian Story—is true. I believe a disciple of Jesus Christ should be both passionate and part of a community, but there is no substitute for understanding; it is part of loving God with our minds. And the basic “compulsory figures” of epistemology achessre actually quite simple; you don’t even have to know what the word “epistemology” means. To use another analogy, learning “how we know” is like learning how to play chess: Anyone (really) can learn the rules, the object of the game, and the basic moves of chess and be playing in ten minutes. After that, becoming good at the game is a matter of diligence and practice, and it’s the same with epistemology.

compulsory figures2So, here are a few brief “compulsory figures” from epistemology:

1.  The most basic unit of knowledge is a “fact”. Facts come in different sizes and shapes, but a common characteristic of facts is that to be useful they must in some way be verifiable.

2.  Most facts can be divided into four basic (though somewhat artificial) categories, with four different ways to know ormicroscope verify them:

a.  Empirical / scientific facts are known by observation with the five senses and the instruments (such as telescopes and microscopes) used to enhance the senses, and by experimental verification.Dead Sea scrolls

b.  Historical facts about past events are known through eyewitness testimony and historical documents.

Existential facts

c.  Existential facts are known through personal experience, introspection, and intuition. These can be verified if the experiences, introspections, and intuitions are universal or part of common human experience.

d.  Logical / Philosophical facts are known through self-evident truths, mathematics, and logical argument / inference.logic


3.  There are three basic types of logical argument / inference: Deductive, Inductive, and Abductive (also called Argument to the Best Explanation).

(Here are two clear and simple explanations of these arguments:;

And that’s it. Of course, anyone who has taken even an elementary college course in epistemology knows that the subject is much deeper and wider. But, to use anotfixing a flather analogy, just as we don’t need to know the intricate engineering details of the internal combustion engine to know how to drive a car or fix a flat tire, knowing the basic “figures” of epistemology can still help us seek and know the truth.


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Arguments and facts are important, in fact essential, but Truth is not just a random agglomeration of facts, anymore than a living organism is a random collection of cells. But cells are real, and so are facts. As cells are encompassed and “make sense” within a body, so facts are encompassed and made sense of within a Story. But there are lots of Stories about who we are and what our existence is all about. Can there be one True Story? And how would we know?

Next Week: Truth Be Told—Part 2 cont.: How Can We Know What Is True? – A Story With Beauty and Power


About Michael W Nicholson

I am a follower of Jesus Christ, a husband, father, and grandfather, a brother and a friend. My professional career has been in education. I taught Industrial Arts in Middle School for six years, four years as an adjunct professor in theology and philosophy, and fifteen years teaching classes in Old Testament, Apologetics, and Worldviews in a Christian High School. Like everyone else who breathes in American culture, I am infected with chronic postmodernity, but I am aware of this and regularly administer the treatment: Historic Christian Orthodoxy as contained in the Scriptures of the Old & New Testaments. I am fascinated by almost every subject imaginable, except economics. I have a Ph.D. in systematic theology from The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. I believe in a God who wants to be found; who leaves signs and suggestions, trademarks, signatures, and signposts scattered throughout every aspect of our existence. And if we are truly looking, He will find us. God is the great Story-teller, and the story he is telling is the great drama of Reality, unfolding before us and of which we are all inescapably a part. And so I am collecting fragments, in Philosophy, in Science, and in Art and holding these fragments up to the light and turning them this way and that, and trying to see and say how the Story—the metanarrative, the Christian Worldview—is involved in, and makes sense of, every aspect of our being-in-the-world (to borrow a term from Heidegger and take it where perhaps he did not intend for it to go). And by doing this I hope I am helping to light the way Home; back to the sea, the ocean, the Ocean of Infinite Love. My blog covers a wide range of topics around this central theme that the transcendent realm surrounds and permeates our existence. I put up new posts periodically. I hope you enjoy them. I hope they help.
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